Eighty-one percent of all gentrification in Stock- holm occurred in medium- and high-income areas. Corresponding figures for Gothenburg and Malmo were 62 percent and 50 percent, respectively. In total, classical gentrification accounted for 23 percent of all gentrification, supergentrification accounted for 36 percent, and, surprisingly, ordinary gentrification in the middle strata — a type unseen in the gentrification literature — accounted for 41 percent. This finding clearly contradicts the widespread assumption that gentrification is a process that particularly affects low-income areas. This also reminds us of Hammel’s (1999) key insight that the formation of rent gaps does not require disinvestment in the building stock or decreasing capitalized land rents but can develop through stable or slightly rising capitalized rents that fail to keep pace with rapidly rising potential land rents (cf. Lees, Slater, and Wyly 2008).Neoliberalization of Housing in Sweden: Gentrification, Filtering, and Social Polarization

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